10 Most Dangerous Cities in America for 2020

Endnotes

Note: In most cases, data represented is for the most populous city within the metro area. We selected the largest city within the area as a representative sample of the entire metro area and refer to these as “anchor” cities.

1. Median income, poverty line, and high school graduation statistics

US Census Bureau (2018), “ American Community Survey 1-year estimates,” Retrieved from Census Reporter Profile page for each metro area. Accessed July 7, 2020.

2. Redlining statistics

Mapping Inequality, “ Redlining in New Deal America,” Retrieved from Mapping Inequality search page for the anchor city in each metro area. Accessed July 7, 2020.

3. Household access to high speed internet

US Census Bureau (2018), “ American Community Survey 1-year estimates,” Retrieved from QuickFacts page for each metro area or anchor city. Accessed July 7, 2020.

4. City budget allocations

City of Anchorage, “ 2019 Proposed General Governmental Operating Budget,” Retrieved from Table 1 on page 11 – 4, line items “Police” and “Economic & Community Development.” Accessed July 8, 2020.

City of Albuquerque, “ Fiscal Year 2020 Approved Budget,” Retrieved from FY/20 Approved Budget graph on second page, line items “Public Safety” and “Community and Cultural Engagement.” Accessed July 8, 2020.

City of Memphis, “ FY2020 Adopted Operating Budget,” Retrieved from General Fund Expenditures, FY2020 Adopted Budget Expenditures graph, page 114, line items “Police” and “Housing & Community Development.” Accessed July 8, 2020.

City of Wichita, “ 2020–2021 Adopted Budget, Vol. 1”, Retrieved from Housing & Community Services Department, page 164, line item 2020 Adopted Total Expenditures and Police Department, page 230, line item 2020 Adopted Total Expenditures. Accessed July 8, 2020.

City of Lubbock, “ Adopted Operating Budget & Capital Program FY19–20 / Volume 1,” Retrieved from FY2019–20 Summary of All Expenses graph, page 29, line items “Public Safety” and “Cultural & Recreation Services” plus “Development Services.” Accessed July 8, 2020.

City of Detroit, “ Four-Year Financial Plan FY 2019–2022,” Retrieved from F Y2019–FY 2022 Expenditures ad Revenues by Agency Table, page A33, column FY2018–19, line items “Police” and “Civil Rights, Inclusion & Opportunity” plus “Housing & Revitalization.” Accessed July 8, 2020.

City of Spokane, “ 2020 Adopted Budget,” Retrieved from General Fund Revenues & Expenditures, page 4, line items “Police” and “Community & Neighborhood Svcs Division,” December 2019. Accessed July 8, 2020.

City of Shreveport, “ 2020 Annual Operating Budget,” Retrieved from Expenditure Detail by Department, page 51, column 2020 Budget, line item “Total Police Department,” and Community Development Special Revenue Fund, Expenditure Detail, page 360 column 2020 Budget, line item “Grand Total Expenses.” Accessed July 8, 2020.

City of Corpus Christi, “ Proposed FY 2019–2020 Budget,” Retrieved from General Fund Summary, page 31, column Proposed Budget 2019–2020, line items “Police” and “Health” plus “Housing and Community Development.” Accessed July 8, 2020.

City of Mobile, “ Annual Budget Fiscal Year 2019,” Retrieved from General Fund Budget Summary, page 1, column FY2019 Proposed Budget, line items “Public Safety” and “Neighborhood Services” plus “Civic Engagement,” August 2018. Accessed July 8, 2020.

Provo City Corporation, “ Provo City Adopted Budget FY 2021,” Retrieved from General Fund Summary on page 32, line items “Police” and “Comm & Neighborhood Srvcs” for FY2021. Accessed July 7, 2020.

City of Lancaster, “ Adopted 2019 Budget,” Retrieved from General Fund Expenditure Summary on pages 2–3, line items “Public Safety” and “Economic Development & Neighborhood Revitalization for 2019 budget. Accessed July 7, 2020.

City of Portland, “ Municipal Budget July 1, 2019–June 30, 2020,” Retrieved from FY20 General Fund Expenditures graph on page 23, line items “Public Safety” and “Health & Human Services.” Accessed July 7, 2020.

5. Unemployment rates

US Bureau of Labor Statistics, “ Local Area Unemployment Statistics, Unemployment Rates for Metropolitan Areas, Annual Averages,” 2018. Accessed July 7, 2020.

6. Free and reduced lunch statistics

National Center for Education Statistics, “C oncentration of Public School Students Eligible for Free or Reduced-Price Lunch,” May 2020. Accessed July 7, 2020. 

Anchorage School District, “ Current Verified Student Enrollment for 2019-2020,” Retrieved from Detailed Enrollment, Current verified student enrollment by subgroup, May 2020. Accessed July 8, 2020.

Albuquerque Public Schools, “ About APS,” retrieved from Student Statistics. Accessed July 8, 2020.  

Shelby County Schools, “ District Budget Fiscal Year 2019–2020,” Retrieved from Executive Summary, page 4. Accessed July 8, 2020.

Wichita Public Schools, “ 2019–2020 District Snapshot,” Retrieved from Overcoming Obstacles, students from homes of poverty. Accessed July 8, 2020.

Lubbock School District, “ Demographics of Lubbock ISD,” October 2019. Accessed July 8, 2020.

Michigan School Data, “ Student Counts, Detroit Public Schools Community District, School Year 2019-20, Economically Disadvantaged.” Accessed July 8, 2020.

Spokane Public Schools, “ District Data, Demographics, Socio Economic Status.” Accessed July 8, 2020.

Louisiana Department of Education, “ Student Attributes, Feb 2020 Multi stats, Caddo Parish.” Accessed July 8, 2020.

Texas Education Agency, “ 2019–2020 Economically disadvantaged Students, Corpus Christi ISD.” Accessed July 8, 2020.

National Center for Education Statistics, “ Digest of Education Statistics, Table 204.10 Number and percentage of public school students eligible for free or reduced-price lunch, by state: Selected years, 2000–01 through 2016–17,” Retrieved from column 2016–17. Note: Data is for the entire state of Alabama. District-level information was not available.

Provo.edu, “ UTREx Report–School Summary,” Provo District LEA Totals, page 43. July 2019. Accessed July 7, 2020.

Pennsylvania Department of Education, “ Public Schools Percent of Low-Income Reports,” Retrieved from 2018–2019 Public Schools Percent Low Income, 1819 LIP by LEA, Lancaster SD Percentage of Low Income Families. Accessed on July 7, 2020.

Portland Public Schools, “ District Fast Facts 2019–2020.” Accessed July 7, 2020.

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